Revelations regarding demise
Towards the end of 1905, Hazrat Mirza repeatedly received revelations informing him that his term of life was almost at an end and that the time of his death was nigh. On November 29, 1905, he received the following revelations:
- Your destined end is nigh.
- Very few days are left.
- On that day, sadness shall envelope all. Then on December 6, 1905, it was revealed:
- Your destined end is nigh, and We shall not leave a trace of anything the mention of which would bring disgrace on you.
- Little remains of the time appointed for you by your Lord, and We shall remove and clear away all such allegations, letting nothing remain of them, which are intended to bring disgrace on you.
On December 7, 1905, the same revelations were repeated, but the following words were added:
- And the last of our cry will be: Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the worlds!
The series of revelations regarding the approaching end of Hazrat
Mirza’s life continued. The following revelation was repeated:
- Your destined end is nigh, and We shall not leave a trace of anything the mention of which would bring disgrace on you.
Hazrat Mirza stated: “After reflecting on these revelations, I think that the time of my demise is very near. I had this same revelation on October 7, 1905 and it was also accompanied by a vision. I saw that I had been given water in a new earthen pot. Therewere only two or three gulps of water left in the pot. The water was very clear and pure. Simultaneously, I had a revelation: ‘The water of life.’”1
Another revelation of December 1905 was:
- And We have the power to show you the fulfillment of some of Our prophecies about the opponents, or to cause you to die.
It was also revealed:
- You will die in the state of My being pleased with you. Other revelations in this series were:
- Your time has come, and We shall leave behind clear signs that shall forever attest to your truthfulness.
- Your time has come, and We shall leave behind manifest signs that shall forever attest to your truthfulness.
- The Promise has drawn nigh. Proclaim to people the favor of your Lord upon you. He who walks in righteousness and is patient, God does not cause the reward of such doers of good to be wasted.
The writing of The Will (Al-Wasiyyat)
When Hazrat Mirza was convinced by these repeated revelations that the time of his demise was very near, he wrote the pamphlet called The Will in which he detailed the governing rules for his Organization after him, and published it on December 20, 1905. Hazrat Mirza stated the reason for writing this will in the same document as follows:
As God, of Power and Glory, has informed me by repeated revelations that the time of my death is near, and His revelation in this connection has been so frequent as to shake my being to the very core and to make this life quite indifferent to me, I have, therefore, thought it proper to write some words of advice for my friends and for all those people who wish to benefit from my teachings. I first publish the holy revelation which, by giving me the news of my death, has prompted me to do this.
Following this, Hazrat Mirza mentioned those revelations that were given earlier in this chapter. Since the nature of this news was such that it would cause extreme grief to the Ahmadiyya community, therefore Hazrat Mirza also reminded his disciples aboutGod’s tradition regarding His Messengers and Appointees.
The tradition is that God aids all Messengers, be they prophets or reformers, and manifests their truth with powerful signs. He causes the Messengers to plant the seeds of righteousness which they seek to spread in the world with their own hands.
But God does not effect the completion of that work through their hands. Instead, He causes them to die at a time when there is fear of failure and thereby provides the opponents with an opportunity to regale in merriment, scorn and derision. When those opponents have ceased to laugh and deride, God then displays asecond man- ifestation of His power (qudrat-e-saniya) and creates conditions that lead to the perfect fulfillment of those objectives thathad hitherto been only partial- ly accomplished.
Thus, God manifests two kinds of powers:
- First: He manifests His power through the hands of His Messengers and Appointees.
- Second: He manifests His power after the death of the Appointees at a time when difficulties abound and the opposition gains in strength and considers that the movement has unraveled and will soon be annihilat- ed. Even the members of the organization begin to waver and lose hope, and some unfortunate ones start looking for ways to renege. It is at a time like this that God manifests His tremendous power for the second time and steadies the tottering movement. The ones who are patient to the endget to see this miracle of God.
Promise of the second manifestation
After elucidating this tradition of God, Hazrat Mirza stated:
Therefore, dear friends, as it is the Divine law of old that God the Most High shows two kinds of power, in order to ruin the twooccasions of the false rejoicing of the opponents, it is not possible that He should now abandon His ancient way.
So, be not saddened by what I have narrated to you, and let not your hearts be anxious, for it is necessary for you to see the second power as well. And its coming is better for you because it shall be perpetual – it shall not be intercepted till the Day of Judgment. That secondpower cannot come until I go, but when I go, then will God the Most High send the second power for you; and it shall be with youforever, as God has given the promise in Barahin Ahmadiyya. That promise is not about me, but it is about you, as God says:
“I will make this community, who are your followers, prevail over those who deny you, till the Day of Judgment.”
…So, in waiting for the second power of God, you should gather together and pray. Every party of the righteous in each countryshould come together and pray constantly, so that the other power may descend from heaven and show you that your God is such a powerful God.2
Directive to work together
Further on, Hazrat Mirza wrote:
After me, the righteous ones in the Organization, possessing pure souls, should take the pledge (baiat) from people in my name. God the Most High wishes to draw towards His Unity (tauhid) all those souls living in various parts of the world, be it Europe orAsia, all who are good in their nature, and to unite His servants in one faith. This is God’s purpose for which I have been sent to the world. You must therefore pursue this object, but with gentleness, display of high morals and much recourse to prayer. And until such time as someone arises having received the Holy Spirit from God, you must all work together after me.3
The members of the Organization are exhorted to piety and purity
Following the preceding directive, Hazrat Mirza strongly exhorted the members of his Organization to adhere to the principle ofthe Unity of God, to seek the love of God and to strive in the ways of piety and purity. He expressed the following exquisite thoughtsregarding how to attain nearness to Allah:
To reach Him all doors are closed but the door which the Quran has opened. There remains no need to follow separately all the prophet- hoods and all the books which have gone before, because the prophethood of Prophet Muhammad includes and encompasses them all, and other than this, all paths are closed. All truths which lead to God are contained within it. Neither shall any new truth come after it, nor was there any previous truth which is not to be found in it. Therefore, with this prophethood have all prophethoods ended, and so it ought to have been, because whatever has a beginning also has an end. Nevertheless, the prophethood of the Holy Prophet is not devoid of granting its own grace; in fact, it has more grace in it than all otherprophethoods. Rendering obedience to this prophethood leads to God by a very easy path, and by following it the blessings of God’s love and of His revelation can be attained in greater measure than used to be received in previous times.
Bahishti Maqbara (Heavenly Graveyard)
Hazrat Mirza then proposed in his will the construction of a graveyard for his Organization. He named the proposed graveyard Bahishti Maqbara (Heavenly Graveyard). Hazrat Mirza describes in The Will how the idea for the graveyard originated:
I was shown a place and informed that it would be the site of my grave. I saw an angel measuring the ground. Upon reaching a certain spot, he told me that it was the site of my grave.
Then I was shown a grave even more resplendent than silver, and all its soil was composed of silver. I was then informed that it was my grave. And I was shown a place which was called the Bahishti Maqbara, and it was made known that those were the graves of the righteous people of this Organization who are heavenly. Since then Ihave been anxious for the purchase of land to serve as a graveyard for the Organization.
However, as suitably located land was very expensive, this object remained in abeyance for a long time. Now, after the death of our dear friend Maulvi Abdul Karim — when there has been repeated revelation about my death as well — I thought it right to make arrangements for the graveyard.
Therefore, I have chosen for this purpose a piece of land belonging to me, situated near my garden, the value of which is not less than a thousand rupees. I pray that God bless it and make it a heavenly graveyard indeed, and that it may be the last resting place of those pure-hearted people of thisOrganization who truly gave preference to the affairs of faith over tem- poral matters, who relinquished the love of this world andwho devoted themselves entirely to God. They brought about an unalloyed transfor- mation within themselves and demonstrated loyalty and integrity like the Companions of the Holy Prophet. Amen, O Lord of the Worlds!
Because Hazrat Mirza desired that this new graveyard he had made should prove to be the heavenly graveyard that the angel had shown him in the vision, he proposed the following conditions for people who desired to be interred in it:
I have personally donated the tract of land for this graveyard.
But to complete this enclosure, additional land shall have to bepurchased, the cost of which is estimated as one thousand rupees. To embellish it, some trees shall be planted, and a well shall be sunk. To the north of this graveyard is a walking thoroughfare; pools of water often accumu- late there. A bridge shall be constructed there. For these various items of expenditure, two thousand rupees will be required, making a total of three thousandrupees to be spent to complete all this work.
- The first condition is, therefore, that every person who wishes to be buried in this graveyard must contribute towards theseexpenses accord- ing to his means. These contributions are required only from such people, and not from others. At present these contributions should be sent to the respected Maulvi Nur-ud-Din. But if God, the Most High, wills, this system will continue after the death of us all. For this pur- pose, there should be an Anjuman (Association) entrusted to spend, as it deems fit, the funds thuscollected from time to time, on proclaiming the teachings of Islam and spreading the message of the Unity of God.
- The second condition is that only such a person belonging to the Organization shall be buried in this graveyard, who makes a will that after his death one-tenth of all he leaves shall be spent on the propaga- tion of Islam and the dissemination of the teachings of the Quran, according to the directions of this Movement.
Every righteous one of perfect faith shall be entitled to specify more than this in his will, but not less than this. This income shall be in the charge of an Association composed of men of integrity and learning; and they shall spend it, by mutual agreement, on the advancement ofIslam, the propagation of the Quran and other religious literature, and the preachers of this Movement, in accordance with the directions given above. God the Most High has promised that He shall grant progress to this movement, and therefore it is hoped that the funds gathered for the propagation of Islam will be large as well. Every form of activity that is included in the propagationof Islam, which it is premature to explain in detail at pres- ent, shall be carried out by means of these funds. And when one partyresponsible for this work has died, the people who are their successors shall also have the duty of carrying out all these functions inaccordance with the rules of the Ahmadiyya Movement. In these funds, there shall also be a provision for orphans, the needy, and converts to Islam who do not have sufficient means and belong to this Movement. It shall be permissible to expand these fundsthrough commercial investment. Think not that all this is unlikely; it is, in fact, the will of that Mighty God Who is the King of the heaven and the earth. It does not worry me as to how these sums of money shall be gathered, or how people shall come forth to accomplish this valiant task, motivated as they will be by their zeal of faith. My worry is that those people who are entrusted with this fund after our time, maynot stumble at the sight of this wealth and subsequently fall in love with the temporal world. Therefore, I pray that this Movement may always find trustworthy people in it who work only for the sake of God. It would, however, be lawful that those who have nomeans may be given financial assistance from these funds.
- The third condition is that the person who is buried in this graveyard should be righteous, abstaining from all that is prohibited, and refrain- ing from every act of polytheism (shirk) or innovation. He must be a true and sincere Muslim.
- Any righteous person who has no property and is unable to make any financial donation may be buried in this graveyard, provided it is shown that he had devoted his life for the faith and was a good person.
Supplement to Al-Wasiyyat
Hazrat Mirza published a supplement to his will on January 6, 1906, in which he gave detailed instructions regarding theimplementation of the will. In this supplement, he laid the foundation of an association, the Anjuman, for the governance of theMovement after him. He himself proposed the rules of the Anjuman.
A few of these rules are reproduced below from which the reader will get an idea of the system according to which Hazrat Mirza desired the Movement to run after him. The following rules regarding the functioning of the Anjuman in the supplement areespecially noteworthy:
Rule Number Seven:
It must be remembered that it shall not suffice just to bequeath one- tenth of the fixed and moveable property. It is essential thatthe testator shall be one who, so far as he is able, adheres to the teachings of Islam, strives to attain righteousness and purity, is aMuslim believing God to be one and having true faith in His Messenger, and does not violate the rights of fellow-beings.
Rule Number Nine:
The Anjuman, which is to hold these funds, shall not be authorized to spend the monies for any purpose except the objectives ofthe Ahmadiyya Movement, and among these objectives the propagation of Islam shall have the highest priority. It shall be allowedthat the Anjuman, by consensus of opinion, expand these funds through com- mercial investment.
Rule Number Thirteen:
As the Anjuman is the successor to the Khalifa appointed by God, this Anjuman must remain absolutely free of any taint of worldliness. All its affairs must be completely above board, and based on fairness.
The Anjuman (Association) designated as the successor to the Khalifa
appointed by God
Rules 9 and 13 referred to above prove that Hazrat Mirza described himself as the “Khalifa appointed by God” and appointed theAnjuman as his successor.
It also shows that he certainly did not initiate a system of khalifas after him. The reason for this is that theverse of the Quran known as Istikhlaf (24:55), on which the foundation of the Islamic caliphate system rests, was not revealed to him, and neither was its revelation required because Hazrat Mirza had not brought a new faith nor had he created a new Ummat (nation)through whom the new faith had to be strengthened. The Holy Prophet was a law-giving Prophet and had brought a new faith. So Allahhad promised the followers of Prophet Muhammad, through him in the Quran thus:
Allah has promised to those of you who believe and do good that He will surely make them rulers (khalifas) in the earth as He made those before them rulers, and that He will surely establish for them their reli- gion, which He has chosen for them…(24:55)
Through this verse, the followers of the Holy Prophet have been prom- ised khilafat (caliphate) and the rationale for granting khilafat has also been given, namely that through the temporal khilafat i.e., the Islamic kingdom and the spiritual khilafat i.e., the religious reformers (mujaddids) and saints, this chosen religion will be established, strengthened and made popular as a result of the knowledge granted through the Holy Prophet to the wise people of the nation.
This was the reason that the Holy Prophet’s nation wastempo- rally granted the sultanate and spiritually the institution of reformers (mujaddids) and saints. This was precisely the khilafat that was promised in the Quranic verse known as Istikhlaf (24:55).
Hazrat Mirza’s appointment as the Reformer (mujaddid) of the four- teenth century Hijrah, the Promised Messiah, and the Mahdi (rightly-guided one) was also under the same promised khilafat, and the objective of his appointment was also the same — the strengthening of the religion of Islam. He himself was the khalifa of the Holy Prophet, and not an independent prophet. Neither did he bring a new religion and law (sunnah) nor did he establish a new faith-based nation (ummah).
So there was no need for a khi- lafatfollowing Hazrat Mirza’s death, and this is the reason why there is no mention of khilafat in his will.4 Instead he created an Anjuman to handle the affairs of his Organization after him and directed its members to work together through mutual consultation.
He stated very clearly: “Work together after me, and keep on supplicating so that the Second Power i.e.,God’s help may assist you to complete my mission because it has been revealed to me about you: ‘(I will) make those who follow you, above those who disbelieve, to the day of Resurrection.’” (3:55) Thus according to this revelation, the promise of God’s assistance was forHazrat Mirza’s Organization and not for an individual khal- ifa. Hence it was necessary for all the members to work collectively within thesystem of an organization to further the common mission.
And what was that system?
Hazrat Mirza had not only described this system with clarity and detail in the documents, The Will andThe Supplement to The Will, but had also put it into practice before he departed from this tem- poral world. First of all, Hazrat Mirza tried to impart financial strength and stability to the Organization’s general fund and proposed a scheme of bequests to generate additional revenue.
Moneys from this fund were used for upholding the word of Allah, and for the protection and propagation of Islam. He established an Anjuman, which he designated as his successor, to run the affairs of the organization and entrusted it with the fiduciary responsibility for the fund including the receipt of donations and the expenditures on the propagation and service of Islam.
He made the decisions of the Anjuman, reached by a majority vote, as absolute and binding once he had passed away. When the Anjuman was made the successor of the God appointed khalifa, namely the Promised Messiah, and its decisions were made final, it is apparent that the entire Organization came under its jurisdiction and it was incumbent on every member of the Organization to obey all the decisions that it made by a majority vote. In short, Hazrat Mirza made the Anjuman his successor and not any one individual, and further exclusively entrusted it, and not any individ- ual, with the expenditure of all the funds that were collected for propagation and for conducting otheraffairs of the organization, and he also gave it exclu- sive authority to make commercial investments.5
No single individual was given authority over the Anjuman
Thus, Hazrat Mirza gave full authority to the Anjuman for running the affairs of the Organization and appointed it as his successor. He did not give any single individual authority over it but instead made all individuals in the organization subservient to its authority. Additional explanation about the powers of the Anjuman can be gleaned from the following directive of Hazrat Mirza:
All members of the Anjuman must belong to the Ahmadiyya Movement, and must be virtuous and honest. And if, in future, it is felt that someone is not virtuous, or that he is not honest, or that he is cunning and tainted with worldly motives, it shall be the duty of the Anjuman to expel him from its ranks forthwith and to appoint another in his place. (Rule Number Ten in the supplement to The Will)
By virtue of this rule, the power to expel an existing member who is tainted with worldly motives and to appoint a new memberwas also given to the Anjuman and not to any single individual. Thus, no single person can require obedience from the Organization or the Anjuman according to the spirit of Hazrat Mirza’s will.
Hazrat Mirza never conceived of an individual as his successor
Even the most detailed reading of The Will and its Supplement does not show even a hint of a succession by a single individual, leave alone a clear directive appointing a particular person as Hazrat Mirza’s successor. The entire will provides clear testimony thatHazrat Mirza absolutely did not have in his mind a single individual as his khalifa or successor. Rather, the will clearly states that the Anjuman is the successor of the God appointed khalifa. Rule 18 in the Supplement further elucidates that Hazrat Mirza made theAnjuman his successor. Rule 18 reads:
If a person has no property whatsoever, moveable or fixed, and it is shown that he is righteous, saintly, God-fearing and a true believer, not having within him any element of hypocrisy, worship of the material world, or default of obedience to God, then he too can be buried in this cemetery with my permission, or, after me, with the consensus of opinion of the Anjuman.
This rule clearly shows that Hazrat Mirza bestowed the authority that he had kept for himself during his lifetime, to the Anjuman after him and not to any individual or to a khalifa. If Hazrat Mirza had felt the necessity of having khulafa, it would have beenappropriate to give his powers to the khulafa. But there is not even an allusion to a khalifa and all powers are vested in the Anjumanwhether in The Will or the rules that he framed for the Anjuman or in the document about the powers of the Anjuman that hewrote in his own hand a mere seventeen months before his demise.6
Central Anjuman (Association) Ahmadiyya, Qadian
When Hazrat Mirza published The Will and its Supplement, he simul- taneously laid the foundation in Qadian of the Anjumanthat he had declared in his will as his successor. He named it the Central Anjuman (Association) Ahmadiyya, Qadian. He also established its branches in all areas where the Ahmadiyya community was functioning as an Organization. The objectives of this Central Anjuman were published in the Qadian-based newspaper Badar on February 16, 1906 as follows:
The objective of this Anjuman is the propagation of Islam and the for- mulation and implementation of proposals for thepropagation of Islam and to prepare individuals who can undertake this work of propagation.
Hazrat Mirza named fourteen people to the membership of the Anjuman who collectively formed its decision-making body known as the Mutamideen. Maulana Nur-ud-Din was appointed as the president, Maulvi Muhammad Ali as the secretary, and Khwaja Kamal-ud- Din as the legal advisor. Hazrat Mirza also stipulated regarding the composition and qualifi- cation of membership of the Anjuman that the members should be Ahmadis, and that two of them must have an excellent familiarity with the Holy Quran, Hadith, and the Arabic language, and that they should also have undertaken a thorough study of the literature of the Ahmadiyya Movement.
The fourteen members appointed by Hazrat Mirza to the Mutamideen were:
- Maulana Nur-ud-Din, President.
- Maulvi Muhammad Ali, Secretary.
- Khwaja Kamal-ud-Din, Legal advisor.
- Maulana Muhammad Ahsan Amrohi.
- Sahibzada Mirza Bashir-ud-Din Mahmud Ahmad.
- Nawab Muhammad Ali Khan (Malerkotla).
- Seth Abdur Rahman (Madras).
- Maulvi Ghulam Hasan Khan, Sub-Registrar, (Peshawar).
- Mir Hamid Shah (Sialkot).
- Sheikh Rahmatullah, Proprietor, English Warehouse, (Lahore).
- Dr. Mirza Yaqub Baig (Lahore).
- Dr. Syed Muhammad Husain Shah (Lahore).
- Dr. Khalifa Rashid-ud-Din.
- Dr. Mir Muhammad Ismail, Assistant Surgeon.
Bequests arrive in large numbers
As soon as the Anjuman was established, many members of the Ahmadiyya Organization formulated their wills and bequeathed a tenth, or a fifth and some even a third of their property to the Anjuman for use in the way of Allah. Those that did not have any property, pledged a tenth of their income, and Hazrat Mirza accepted this as satisfying the financial require- ment stipulated in his will for burial in the Heavenly Graveyard.
Copies of bequests began to arrive in Qadian in large numbers and this made it clear to friend and foe alike that Allah, the Most High, had created in this Organization made by Hazrat Mirza a spiritual strength that imbued its members with the spirit of selflessness and sacrifice in the way of Allah. This was the strength of belief regarding which the Holy Prophet had remarked: “Even if faith were near the Pleiades, a man from among these (Persians) would surely find it.”7
This is a truism because sacrifice and selflessness for the sake of Allah evidences the belief that man has in his Creator.
In order to prepare for a battle, the Holy Prophet once asked his Companions for donations. Hazrat Umar donated half his wealth, while Hazrat Abu Bakr donated his entire wealth. When the Holy Prophet asked Hazrat Umar how much wealth he had left behind, he answered that he had left half of his wealth behind. The Holy Prophet then asked Hazrat Abu Bakr the same question, and the response was that he had left behind only Allah and His Messenger — a euphemism meaning that he had left behind nothing.
Thereupon, the Holy Prophet remarked, “Umar’s faith too is one-half that of Abu Bakr.” Thus, selflessness and sacrifice is the measure of a person’s faith, and the spiritual strength which Hazrat Mirza’s good influence had imbued in the Organization was reflected in the selflessness and sacrifice that members of the organization showed at that time and continue to exhibit to this day.
Hazrat Mirza’s selflessness
By now, the membership of the Ahmadiyya Organization had grown immensely, and the amount of donations had increased from hundreds to thousands, and then to hundreds of thousands. A worldly man would have devised a technique to divert the money into hisown pocket and would have ensured that his family continued to enjoy these benefits even after he had departed from this world.
However, through the mechanism of writing his will and creating an Anjuman, Hazrat Mirza turned over the control and fidu- ciary responsibility of this money to the Anjuman.
The donations that came were earmarked for different purposes and had to be credited totheir respec- tive heads of account. Hazrat Mirza kept only the account for the public kitchen under his control and turned over the funds for all other heads of account to the Anjuman. Through public announcements in the newspapers, Hazrat Mirza instructed his community to send donations directly to the Anjuman. Sometimes, out of reverence, members sent their donations directly to Hazrat Mirza. In such instances, he would send the money over to the treasurer for deposit.
At the same time, he repeatedly publicized that people should not send their funds to him as this was a source of great inconven- ience for him, as well as an enormous waste of histime.
Hazrat Mirza had kept the account of the public kitchen under his con- trol because guests came in large numbers and many righteous souls had forsaken their homes and migrated to Qadian. They did not have any source of income and were permanent guests at the public kitchen. Hazrat Mirza wanted to personally care for their eating and drinking and this was a great burden on him becausethe expenditure on the public kitchen was so high that Hazrat Mirza’s personal income also disappeared in meeting this expense.
On several occasions, Hazrat Mirza contemplated closing the public kitchen because of its high cost, but Divine revelations stopped him from doing so. For this reason, Hazrat Mirza expressed the intention to keep the account for the public kitchen directly under his control during his lifetime, but after his demise this account too would pass into the control of the Anjuman and so it did.
Thus, when the revenue from member donations reached into the hun- dreds of thousands, Hazrat Mirza disengaged himself from its financial management — this is known as selflessness. So he entrusted to the commu- nity their funds, while he himself prepared tomeet his Creator.
Operation of the Anjuman during Hazrat Mirza’s lifetime
The Anjuman operated for the remaining period of Hazrat Mirza’s life of two and a half years in accordance with the governancesystem he had devised, and the affairs of the organization were conducted precisely in the manner that Hazrat Mirza wanted the system tofunction after he was gone. He would per- sonally scrutinize new rules and regulations that were proposed from time to time, and approve them as needed. Also, from time to time, he would provide further elucidation and explanation of the powers of the Anjuman.
A case study of the Anjuman’s authority — Extension of the Mubarak Mosque
The membership of the Organization was increasing daily, by the Grace of Allah, but space in the Mubarak Mosque was verylimited. Although a larger mosque was also available, nonetheless everyone desired to perform their congregational prayers in the company of Hazrat Mirza in the Mubarak Mosque. The Mubarak Mosque could accommodate only thirty-six people for congregational prayers, and hence an acute shortage of space was felt.
An expansion of the Mubarak Mosque had been discussedseveral times but had never progressed beyond that, primarily because the land adjacent to the mosque belonged to Mirza Nizamuddin and he was not willing to part with it.
Finally in April 1907, the land was purchased with great difficulty and an appeal for four thousand rupees was made for financ- ing the construction. After the required funds had been collected, the work was begun and theextension of the mosque was completed during the winter of 1907. The mosque could now accommodate about hundred and fifty tohundred and seventy five people in congregational prayers. Since the Mubarak Mosque was located on the second floor, the extensionnecessitated the construction of first floor rooms below the extension that were put to use as the offices of the Anjuman.
During the construction of the Mubarak Mosque extension, an incident took place that happened to shed a good deal of light on the status and pow- ers of the Anjuman. The Anjuman passed a resolution for the extension of the Mubarak Mosque and approved its architectural plan.
The plan was then handed over to Mir Nasir Nawab, the father-in-law of Hazrat Mirza and a retired sub-overseer, to supervise the construction of the extension in accor- dance with the plan. Mir Nasir Nawab had a somewhat stern disposition and a mindof his own. He ignored the plan approved by the Anjuman and instead tried to substitute his own plan. When the Anjuman stopped him from doing so, he became annoyed with the Anjuman and took his complaint to Hazrat Mirza. Hazrat Mirza was not given to listening tosuch complaints and he did not give it any attention. However, the Anjuman too felt that the matter should be brought before Hazrat Mirza because it would be very difficult for the Anjuman to conduct the affairs of the Organization if no sanctity was attached to its resolutions.
So the matter was brought to Hazrat Mirza’s attention. Hazrat Mirza responded by making a personal appearance at the start of the next meeting of the Anjuman where he wrote the following doc- ument with his own hand andleft it with the members of the Anjuman:
My opinion is that the verdict of the Anjuman in any matter, arrived at by a majority vote, should be considered as correct, and as absolute and binding. But I wish to add that I should be kept informed only in regard to religious matters, connected particularly with our main purpose. I believe that the Anjuman will not do anything against my will and this I have written by way of precaution, that a religious matter may perhaps be such in which there may be a particular Divine purpose. And this condition will last only during my lifetime, and after me, the decision of the Anjuman in every matter should be sufficient and enough.
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, October 27, 1907
This document furnishes conclusive evidence that the Anjuman had full and final authority over all Organizational matters after the demise of Hazrat Mirza. Hazrat Mirza did not make the Anjuman subordinate to any single individual whose directives would bebinding on the Anjuman.
Keeping the Islamic principle of consultative decision making in view, he made over the entire governance of the Organization to the Anjuman. This was a great achievement on the part of Hazrat Mirza as he nipped in the bud the practice of hereditary spiritual leadership and the undue devotion, often bordering on worship, accorded to the offspring of saints by their disciples. Hazrat Mirza established his community on the principles of Islamic democ- racy, and the truth is that this was a magnificent achievement in his many works of religious reformation.8
Removal of certain misconceptions regarding the Heavenly Graveyard
Two popular misconceptions that arose regarding the Heavenly Graveyard (Bahishti Maqbara) need to be dispelled here:
- First, certain devoted disciples thought that none but those destined for paradise could be buried in the Heavenly Graveyard.
- Second, according to Rule Twenty of the supplement to The Will, Hazrat Mirza exempted himself and the members of his familyfrom the conditions imposed on other members of the Organization for burial in the Heavenly Graveyard. The opponents considered this as nepotism while the devoted disciples went to the other extreme and concluded that Hazrat Mirza and all his familymembers were destined for paradise and hence did not have to fulfill the conditions that ordinary members had to.
Reply to the first objection
Regarding the first objection, Hazrat Mirza himself stated in a footnote of The Will: “It is not meant that the earth here will make aperson deserving of entering heaven.” Thus the mere act of burial in this graveyard is not suf- ficient to destine the person to paradise. However, the attributes imposed as conditions of burial must necessarily exist in people who will enter paradise. These attributes are two:
The first is righteousness. Hazrat Mirza states this condition in The Will as: “The third condition is that the person who is buried in this graveyard should be righteous, abstaining from all that is prohibited, and refraining from every act of polytheism or innovation. Hemust be a true and sincere Muslim.” The second is sacrifice in the way of Allah. A measure of this sacrifice is the bequest of one-tenth ofthe person’s property for use in God’s way.
There is no doubt that these two qualities make a person paradisiacal, and no matter where such a person is interred he isparadisiacal. God’s entire earth is a heavenly graveyard for him. This is also the essence of Rule Eight in the Supplement to The Will inwhich Hazrat Mirza states that if a person has fulfilled all the requirements needed for burial in the Heavenly Graveyard, but then dies in aplace “from where it is difficult to bring back his body, his will shall stand valid, and with God the Most High it shall be as though he were buried in this graveyard.”
The thing that makes a person deserving of a place in paradise are actions done in a person’s lifetime. If the person was righteous then he is deserving of paradise in accordance with the Quranic promise of: “A parable of the Garden which ispromised to those who keep their duty,” (13:35) regardless of whether he drowns in a river or is interred in any part of the world. And if a person is not righteous, then merely by being interred in the Heavenly Graveyard, he does not become deserving of paradise.
One issue that still needs resolution is the speculation that no person except the ones who are headed for paradise will be able toget buried in this graveyard. This is just an assertion for which alas there is no evidence. There is no promise by God to this effect. This was certainly Hazrat Mirza’s wish, and he supplicated repeatedly to God in this matter as evidenced by his state- ment in The Will: “Ipray that God blesses it and makes it the very ‘graveyard of the heavenly.’”
This supplication shows that this was Hazrat Mirza’s heart- felt wish, but not a Divine revelation. It expresses HazratMirza’s desire, but there was no promise from God for its fulfillment.
So how can it be said that whoever is interred in the Heavenly Graveyard is paradisiacal when Hazrat Mirza received no revelation from God that He will not allow anyone but the paradisiacal to beburied in the graveyard that Hazrat Mirza was making, nor did God make any other specific promise to this effect? Allah has stated in theQuran the following principle regarding such affairs: “Has he gained knowl- edge of the unseen, or made a covenant with the Beneficent? By no means!” (19:78-79).
In other words, unless God makes a specific promise with someone or informs a person about theUnseen through a clear revelation, no one has the right to categorically pass a verdict about such matters. Further, the verdict cannot bebased on the exercise of judgment (Ijtihad) because mistakes can frequently be made in its reasoning. None of the two conditions – specific Divine covenant or knowledge of the Unseen — are present in this case.
Hazrat Mirza did not receive any definitive revelation indicating that the graveyard he was constructing was the Heavenly Graveyard, which he was shown in the vision; nor did God make any promise afterthe construction of the graveyard that none shall enter it except the paradisiacal.
So presenting the Divine revelation: “Every kind of blessing would alight therein,” is not relevant because the revelation pertains to the Heavenly Graveyard shown in the vision and not to the constructed graveyard. It was in the context of the Heavenly Graveyard seen in the vision that Hazrat Mirza wrote: “…God has notonly said that it is the graveyard of the heavenly, but has also said ‘every kind of blessing will alight therein.’”9
In the absence of a revelation or a promise, it cannot be established that the graveyard of the vision and the constructed graveyard are the same. It is true that Hazrat Mirza tried to give a physical representation to his vision. In the vision, Hazrat Mirza had seen the graves of some of his pious followers and he was told that this is the Heavenly Graveyard. There is no ambiguity in the interpretation of this vision.
In showing Hazrat Mirza a view of the purgatory, God wanted to inform Hazrat Mirza that there were people in hisOrganization who were destined for heaven; additionally he was given the glad tidings that they were the recipients of all kinds of blessings. Hazrat Mirza was given this good news with respect to some of his friends. Hazrat Mirza tried to give a physical representation to his dream. The Organization was in need of a graveyard and he laid its foundation.
At the same time, he wished withall his heart that this graveyard may be the Heavenly Graveyard that he had been shown in a vision. He loved his friends dearly andeven in this worldly life, he greatly desired that his companions stay together with him. He had remarked on several occasions that it was his greatest wish that his house may be surrounded on all sides by the houses of his friends with doors opening between them to facilitate traffic.
Similarly, he desired that even after death, they may be together. However, Hazrat Mirza did not do anything motivated solely by worldly imperatives and always imparted a spiritual angle to all his endeavors. Now that he was embarking on making a graveyard,he gave it a religious angle. He was shown a vision, and he sought to bring about its fulfillment. He desired that such pious people who were righteous and had sacrificed for their religion should be interred together so that the graveyard may become an example of selflessness and sacrifice for the future generations.
This is the real motive behind the construction of the Heavenly Graveyard. HazratMirza knew when he was laying the foundation of the Heavenly Graveyard that the earth cannot make a person heavenly but only actions can.
Hence the biggest and most essential condition he imposed for a place in the graveyard was righteousness and purity. Apart from this, a graveyard can only be beneficial for future generations if it presents an example worthy of emulation. For this reason, he imposedthe second condition that only people who bequeath a minimum of one-tenth of their wealth for spending in the way of Allah will begiven a place in it. However, he real- ized that a tenth of the wealth could be bequeathed, but who can possibly measure righteousness and purity.
It is not within the capability of man to read and audit the scroll of deeds of another. God alone is the Master of the Day ofRequital. There is none besides Him who can look into the hearts and read the scroll of deeds, and hence Hazrat Mirza considered itappropriate to turn to Him and supplicate in the matter. Thus, he writes in The Will: “I pray that God may bless it and make it a heavenlygraveyard.”
This prayer clearly demonstrates that Hazrat Mirza did not declare that the graveyard he had constructed was the HeavenlyGraveyard he had seen in his vision. He certainly desired it, and even supplicated for it, but whether his prayer was accepted or not is anopen question. There is no information about this.
First, Hazrat Mirza received no revelation from God that this graveyard was theHeavenly Graveyard that he was shown in the vision, or that his prayer had been accepted and none would get interred in it except the heavenly. Second, how could God entrust His attribute of “Master of the Day of Requital” to the administrators of the Anjuman and themanagers of the graveyard?
The truth is that Hazrat Mirza’s real motive was just to infuse the spirit of sacrifice for religion in his disciples. He wanted his disciples to prove the strength of their belief and their sincerity by sacrificing for the sake of reli- gion. Hazrat Mirza was not concerned whether the graveyard was heavenly or not, but his real concern was whether his disciples were heavenly or not. This in turn was only possible through producing in his disciples a strong desire for the acquisition of piety and purity, and an outstanding spirit of sacrifice. Accordingly, towards the end of the Supplement to The Will, Hazrat Mirza, after stating that those who object to the conditions of interment in the Heavenly Graveyard are hypocrites, writes:
These are the essential conditions, which are written above. In future, only those who fulfill these conditions shall be buried in this heavenly graveyard. It is possible that some people, who have an overwhelming tendency to think ill of others, may make me the target of criticism on account of this plan, believing this scheme to arise out of selfish motives, or calling it an innovation (bidah). But it should be remem- bered that these are the works of God the Most High. He does what He pleases.
Without a doubt, it is His purpose to separate the hypocrite from the believer by means of this plan. I feel that those people who, on being informed of this Divine plan, hasten to give a tenth or even more of their property in the way of God, give the ultimate proof ofsincerity to their faith. Allah the Most High states:
“Do men think that they will be left alone on saying: We believe, and will not be tried?” (29:2).
So this test of sincerity is absolutely insignificant. The Companions of the Holy Prophet were tried by being asked to sacrifice their lives, and they they laid down their lives in the way of God.
The idea that blanket permission should be accorded for burial in this graveyard is far removed from reality. If this was proper, then why would God have laid the foundation for the trials of people in every era? In every era, God has desired to differentiate the pure from the evil. That is the reason why He has done the same in this affair as well… I can feel that through this present test those who are sincere to a high degree — having in reality given priority to the faith over world- ly interests — should bedistinguished from other people, so that it may become clear that they lived up to their profession of the pledge, and demonstrated their sincerity. This plan shall undoubtedly weigh very heavily upon the hypocrites, and it shall cause them to be exposed.
It is apparent from the above passage that this entire arrangement was a calculus to differentiate the pious from the hypocrites — todiscriminate those who had their conviction of faith affirmed by contributing their wealth in the way of God from those who joined the fraternity of hypocrites by remaining mired in the love of worldly things and thereby broke the confession of their pledges. Whoever sacrifices in the way of Allah and leads a life of piety is heavenly regardless of whether he is buried in the graveyard called the Heavenly Graveyard or not. The mere act of getting interred in the Heavenly Graveyard will not make a person heavenly if he lacks these qualities.
It is a fact that Hazrat Mirza received no promise from God that only the heavenly will be interred in the Heavenly Graveyard. This was certainly Hazrat Mirza’s wish, and he even prayed for the fulfillment of this wish. However, it is also a fact that God never revealed to Hazrat Mirza that his prayer had been accepted. The reason for this appears to be that it is God’s attribute of being theMaster of the Day of Requital, that takes account of the deeds of men, and will do so. Man does not have any jurisdiction in this affair.Hazrat Mirza understood this fully well and so he repeatedly beseeched: “O God! Be it so that none but the heavenly get interred in this graveyard.” If the prayer had been accepted, then none but the heavenly could have been interred in the graveyard. However, there were two major difficulties in the acceptance of this prayer. First, it would have dissipated the belief in the Unseen. Second, how could it be possible for man to enter par- adise merely at the bidding of the management of the Heavenly Graveyard and without standing before God for a full accounting of his actions? God’s role as the Master of the Day of Requital is a matter between man and his Lord and no one else can interfere – neither a human nor an angel. Hence, to think that the permission of the management of the graveyard to be interred therein can in any way be meaningful is absurd. Supplications of the kind with which Hazrat Mirza beseeched God are made by prophets and God’s appointees solely as an outcome of their love and mercy for the believers. However, God’s laws are immutable. God does not grant acceptance to the prayers of anyone regardless of how near and dear he is to Him, if the sup- plicationof the suppliant runs counter to the attributes and actions of God.
Reply to the second objection
The exemption that Hazrat Mirza granted himself and his family from the conditions of burial in the cemetery that were imposed on the rest of his community certainly could not mean that piety and sacrifice were not required from them to enter paradise.
No new Divine law (shariah) had been revealed exempting Hazrat Mirza and his family from piety, purity and sac- rifice in the way of Allah as aprecondition of entry into paradise so that they could just walk into heaven without fulfilling these necessary conditions. Nor can it bethat Hazrat Mirza’s family was immune to ever performing any action against the dictates of righteousness. No man in the world, eventhough he may be a prophet or saint, can assert that his progeny would forever be righteous.
If it is true that the son of a pious and great prophet like Noah was sinful and debauched and could not be saved from destruction despite the prayers of his father.
And if it is true that the son of a majestic prophet like Solomon brought the realm of his father to ruination through personal incompetence; and if it is true that the progeny of Abraham, the beloved prophet of God, and those of the pious prophets Isaac, Jacob and Joseph was the Jewish nation that was accursed in the eyes of God; and if it is true that from the offspring of God’s favored prophets Abraham and Ishmael were people like Abu Jahal, Abu Lahab and the Makkan renegades; and if it is true that sinful and debauched disbelievers and apostates were born in the Syed offspring of the Holy Prophet through his daughter, then who can claim that the offspring of Hazrat Mirza will always be men of piety, and that there would be no perpetration of misdemeanors and transgressions by those among his descendants?
After all, Mirza Sultan Ahmad and Mirza Fazal Ahmad were also Hazrat Mirza’s sons but he severed his connectionswith them on account of their objectionable behavior.
Does it not follow from this that merely being an offspring of Hazrat Mirza is inand of itself no evidence of piety? To argue otherwise would be contrary to the testimony of history. If the mere fact of being HazratMirza’s progeny does not guarantee piety, then neither does it guarantee certain entry into paradise. Hazrat Mirza has elucidated thispoint at great length in his book Tiryaq-ul-Qulub.
The essence of that treatment is that associating physical progeny to spiritual people is somewhat contemptuous of the latter. Because of their spiritual status, only such people deserve to be classed as their progeny whoare spiritually their followers and have a spiritual connection with them.
In the light of this statement, it follows that exempting hisfamily from the conditions imposed on others for burial in the Heavenly Graveyard could not be because Hazrat Mirza considered thathis progeny would be righteous forever. Even the Holy Prophet told his daughter Fatima: “Your deeds alone will avail you on the Day ofJudgment. The fact that I am your father will be of no benefit.”
It appears, therefore, that the only reason Hazrat Mirza granted an exemption to his family from the burial conditions was that he did not con- sider the graveyard to be the Heavenly Graveyard for his family but instead just a family graveyard for them.
Had he considered the graveyard to be Heavenly for his own family, he would never have exempted them from the conditions that the Quran has imposed for a place in paradise because there was neither a new Quran nor a new Divine law for his family. The conditions HazratMirza imposed on his community for burial in the Heavenly Graveyard are precisely the conditions mentioned in the Quran for entry into paradise. The fact that Hazrat Mirza exempted his family from the burial conditions shows that Hazrat Mirza did not consider the graveyard as the Heavenly Graveyard but just as an ancestral graveyard for his family.
It has repeatedly been stressed that what makes the graveyard heavenly is not the tract of land, but the conditions imposed forburial in it. It follows, therefore, that for those to whom the conditions do not apply, for them it is not the Heavenly Graveyard, but just an ordinary graveyard.
Two questions arise at this juncture:
- Why did Hazrat Mirza exempt himself from the conditions for burial in the Heavenly Graveyard? It is true that Hazrat Mirza didexempt himself from the burial conditions imposed on the rest of the community. The reason for this was that Hazrat Mirza hadbeen shown in the vision his own grave, made out of silver earth, which was separate from the graves of his pious followers in theHeavenly Graveyard. Hence, Hazrat Mirza did not stand in need of being admitted to the Heavenly Graveyard. In fact, his statuswas such that through his aegis hundreds of people devel- oped the traits of those destined for paradise. Truly, his grave in itselfwas a garden from the gardens of paradise. Hence, Hazrat Mirza’s per- sonal exemption from the burial conditions was entirely in agreement with the vision, and he acted rightly in according himself this exemption.
- The second question is: Why did Hazrat Mirza define the relationship of this graveyard with respect to his family as that of a family graveyard instead of leaving it as a Heavenly Graveyard for them as well? Hazrat Mirza stated that the exception in respect of hisfamily was sanctioned by God. The fact is that the disposition of Allah, the All Knowing and Aware, is to cover the failings of humans, and to overlook and pardon much. Allah knew that along with pious and virtuous people in Hazrat Mirza’s progeny, there wouldalso be unrighteous ones. So if the stipulated con- ditions of piety and sacrifice for burial in the Heavenly Graveyard were applied to Hazrat Mirza’s progeny, then the following problem could arise: In certain cases, Hazrat Mirza’s disciples would overlook the faultsof his progeny and give them special consideration out of respect. The progeny would then be interred in the Heavenly Graveyardeven though they were devoid of piety and the spirit of sacrifice, and the burial condi- tions would thus be grossly violated. On the otherhand, if the faults of his progeny were not overlooked but subjected to scrutiny, then needless exposure and embarrassment in the eyes of the outsiders would result along with a real possibility of an internecine conflict in the organization between the supportersof the progeny and the scrutinizers. In addition, Hazrat Mirza’s children and family may have laid ownership claim to the land of thegraveyard on the grounds that it was their ancestral property and part of their inheritance. In the ensuing dispute, it would not havebeen surprising if they had tried to dispossess the Anjuman.
So Allah, the Most High, Who is Wise and overlooks faults, desired to eliminate the possibility of such a controversy. The fact is that God will call all people to account and reward them according to their deeds. If a person is pious, he will be rewarded withparadise, and if he is wicked, then God will either forgive him or punish him. In the light of this fact, why raise needless contention by bringing in the matter of the burial of Hazrat Mirza’s family in the graveyard?
Some people have wrongly interpreted the Divine attribute of covering and over- looking sins — as exhibited in granting an exemption to Hazrat Mirza’s family from the burial conditions — and concluded that all of Hazrat Mirza’s progeny is forgiven and paradise bound. This is notonly an exaggeration but an extreme and erroneous view. It is impos- sible to say about the progeny of any person that each andevery one of them would be pious and righteous.
As I have shown earlier, such a claim would be incorrect and against the facts. In addition, if all of Hazrat Mirza’s progeny were bound for paradise, where was the need for giving them exemption from the burial conditions?
The exemption by itself proves that there could be some individuals in Hazrat Mirza’s progeny who may be unable to fulfill the conditions of burial in the graveyard. Hence, it was considered expedient not to open this issue that could become a bone of contention later on. This was accom- plished by giving the status of a family graveyard to the BahishtiMaqbara for Hazrat Mirza’s family.
Similarly, the opponents who view Hazrat Mirza with doubt and suspicion in this matter err on the opposite side. A little reflection perfectly clears up the affair. Hazrat Mirza Sahib vested in the Anjuman the authority of collecting and spending funds from bequests. He did not associate himself, or his family members, with this monetary aspect at all — this was obviously not a scheme for appropriating money for himself or his relations.
As for the permission to inter members of his family in thegraveyard without putting them to the test that the rest of the community was required to take, I have already explained the rationale for that.
A graveyard can only become heavenly for the interred if the person is pious and makes sacrifices in the wayof Allah. It is nothing but an ordinary graveyard for anyone who does not do this. If Hazrat Mirza’s progeny conduct themselves with piety and render sacrifices in the way of God, then it would be a heavenly graveyard for them too. Otherwise, it would be an ordinary graveyard for them, even though they may be buried therein. Nonetheless, being their ancestral graveyard, no one can prevent them from burial in the Heavenly Graveyard.
- The two or three gulps later proved to be two or three years because it was approximately two and a half years after this revelation that Hazrat Mirza passed away.
- Hazrat Mirza took the idea of the manifestation of two powers from this verse of the Quran: “We certainly help Our messengers and those who believe, in this world’s life and on the day when the witnesses arise.” (40:51) i.e., on the Day of Judgment. In other words, God has promised in this verse to assist believers with two powers – one during the life- time of the messengers and appointees who are sent by Him, and second after them in the lifetime of those believers who accept them. Both the periods require the manifestation of God’s power, assistance and help. During the period of messengers and appointees, this is needed to deliver God’s messages with which they are sent to the people, and to plant the seeds of righteousness and guidance. And in the life of the believers after the messengers and appointees have passed away, so that the planted seeds may be properly nourished. Just as the opposition exerts its power to the utmost both the times, so too does God man- ifest His power both times and through His blessing and assistance makes his appointee and the believers successful and triumphant. Hazrat Mirza calls the assistance of God given to messengers and appointees as the First Power and the assistance furnished to the believers later as the Second Power. Unfortunately, some ignorant people associate the Second Power with a particular person who would be the Second Power. This is totally erroneous. Hazrat Mirza had named the assistance that God furnishes to the believers as the Second Power. There is no doubt however that there are some people among the believers who by virtue of their nearness to God, their sacrifices, their selflessness and their service to the faith strongly attract the assistance of God, and if they are called a man- ifestation of the Second Power, it would not beremiss. But it must be remembered that the Second Power is not by itself the title of any person, but is the name of the power that assists the party ofbelievers in their affairs. Hazrat Mirza called this Second Power eternal because God’s assistance to the believers will not be severed till the Day ofJudgment.Hazrat Mirza did not appoint in this will a caliph to run the affairs of the organization after him but exhorted the members to work together. Further on in this will, he appointed the association as his successor and instructed that the affairs of the association should be carried on by mutual consultation. However, he instructed that any pious member who was vouched for by forty believers could accept pledges in Hazrat Mirza’s name. In other words, this condition means that the pledge receiver should not be trying to build his own coterie of disciples but should be making the pledge takers disciples of Hazrat Mirza. The wisdom behind this was that if different pledge receivers accepted the pledge in their own name, there was a real danger that different spiritual leaderships and schools may emerge and the unity of the Organization may be seriously threatened, possibly leading to separa- tion and breakup of the Organization.
- Whoever gives currency to the institution of khilafat after Hazrat Mirza based upon the Quranic verse Istikhlaf clearly treads on the wrong path because thereference in this verse is to the khulafa (successors) of the Holy Prophet and definitely not to the khulafa (suc- cessors) of Hazrat Mirza. If God had wanted to initiate the system of khulafa after Hazrat Mirza, He would have revealed the verse Istikhlaf to him and given his followers the prom- ise of khulafa, but He did not. This was the reason Hazrat Mirza did not so much as mention khilafat in his will. So whoever tries to emulate the Holy Prophet by setting up asimilar system of khulafa after Hazrat Mirza based on the verse Istikhlaf is wrongfully giv- ing Hazrat Mirza the same position as that of the Holy Prophet. This is unjust and a great calumny against Hazrat Mirza. Making the slave the equivalent of the master is a danger- ous exaggeration and a deviation from the right path. God’s promise of khilafat was made through the Holy Prophet with his nation and not with another. Accordingly under this same promise Hazrat Mirza was a spiritual khalifa of the Holy Prophet, and in the future too any spiritual khalifa who comes will be a khalifa of the Holy Prophet and notof anyone else. It is true, however, that the future khalifa will be a follower and verifier of Hazrat Mirza because the reformation he instituted is somagnificent that it cannot be disregarded. Hazrat Mirza is to be credited with putting forth such an accurate portrayal of Islam that if the next reformer (mujaddid) or a spiritual khalifa espouses anything different then it will not be the correct picture of Islam. It is, therefore, necessary that he should follow in the footsteps of this Great Reformer. But Islam is the Holy Prophet’s religion and his prophethood and messengership extend up to the end of the world. Hence whoever is the reformer (mujaddid) or spiritual khalifa and whenever he comes will be the khalifa of the Holy Prophet and not of Hazrat Mirza.God’s promise of khilafat is with the Holy Prophet and not with Hazrat Mirza.
- See rule 9 in the Supplement to The Will.
- I am laying so much stress on explaining the authority of the Anjuman because Hazrat Mirza’s son, Mian Mahmud Ahmad, has laid the foundation of a khilafat system in Qadian which is a complete innovation, and under which one individual called the khalifa has dic- tatorial control over all the affairs of theOrganization. The innovator of this system is none other than the khalifa, Mian Mahmud Ahmad, himself. The authority of the khalifa that he has expounded from time to time is not only totally contrary to the will of Hazrat Mirza but also contrary to the teachings of Islam. According to the edicts of Mian Mahmud Ahmad, the khalifa has to be obeyed under all circumstances and he is sinless and not liable to make a mistake. Even if you consider any of his acts or directives as against the Islamic law (shariah)or “that which is accepted” (amr bil marouf) you should turn a blind eye and obey it anyways. You should not raise even genuine objections against the khali- fa’s edicts because if you raise even genuine objections, you will be liable for punishment. The Central Anjuman Qadian is subservient and subordinate to the khalifa. If the khalifa desires, he can erase, destroy or otherwise get rid of the Anjuman much as one would get rid of a fly thatinadvertently drops into a container of milk. In the khalifa’s dictionary, the word shura (consultation) is synonymous with shor (clamor). And shura or consultative decision making is something that Hazrat Mirza laid so much stress on and that the Quran exhorts as well. The Anjuman cannot object to any act of the khalifa and the question of deposing the khalifa does not arise. Thus, the khalifa exercises total control over the think- ing and faith of the entirecommunity. It is for this reason that I have had to repeatedly shed light on the authority of the Anjuman that was bestowed on it by Hazrat Mirza in his will so that I can show that Hazrat Mirza shares no responsibility for the institution of this innovative khilafat and its rules that run counter to the teachings of Islam.
- Al-Bukhari, Kitab Tafsir al-Quran 62:1
- A facsimile of the original hand written note with its type written version is reproduced on page 760-761.
- The Will (Al-Wasiyyat).